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Religion and Reform

Page history last edited by Mr. Hengsterman 8 years, 2 months ago


Spanish Mission System



Great Migration of Puritans, 1630s and 1640s



City upon a Hill - John Winthrop



Maryland Toleration Act, 1649



Roger Williams and Providence, Rhode Island



Salem Witch Trials, 1692



Quakers   Society of Friends



William Penn,  Pennsylvania, 1681,  Holy Experiment


First Great Awakening, 1730s-1760s


Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. Led by George Whitefield (most of the gatherings were in fields)


Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) Credited with starting the Great Awakening in 1734. Edwards gave gripping sermons about sin and the torments of Hell - Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, a Careful and Strict Inquiry Into...That Freedom of 


One of the first events to unify the colonies.  Split denominations thus increasing competitiveness of American churches.  Brought religion to many who had lost touch with it.  Undermined the older clergy.  Encouraged a new wave of missionary work among the Indians and slaves 

An easy way to remember the new light colleges is PRINCE RUTGER D. BROWN 

They Are Princeton – Rutgers –Dartmouth - Brown


FYI - The Great Awakening had a strong democratic component as people  increasingly had more choice over religion (a highly American trait)



The Enlightenment -  European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition



Deism -  The belief that God has created the universe but remains apart from it and permits his creation to administer itself through natural laws


Period# 4: 1800-1848 

The new republic struggled to define and extend democratic ideals in the face of rapid economic, territorial, and demographic changes.


As the nation expanded and its population grew, regional tensions, especially over slavery, led to a civil war — the course and aftermath of which transformed American society.


American Colonization Society (1817)


Second Great Awakening, 1830's – led by Charles Finney

As people move away from traditional homelands, they must search for a sense of community


A tidal wave of spiritual fervor that resulted in prison reform, church reform, temperance movement (no alcohol), women’s rights movement, abolition of slavery in 1830s  


Plays a direct role in the antebellum reform movements, especially abolitionism (but also including temperance, prison reform, and women’s rights


Directly influenced by increasing political participation of common citizens 


Reform Movements (stemming from the Second Great Awakening)


.Period #5: 1844-1877 

As the nation expanded and its population grew, regional tensions, especially over slavery, led to a civil war — the course and aftermath of which transformed American society.



Mormons – The Church of Later Day Saints founded by Joseph Smith in 1830. Smith gathered a following in Palmyra NY and eventually migrated to Ohio, Illinois, Missouri and eventually Utah

• Joseph Smith

• Brigham Young

• Utah Territory, 1850



Anti-Catholic Nativism


American Party (Know Nothings)


Period #6: 1865-1898 

The transformation of the United States from an agricultural to an increasingly industrialized and urbanized society brought about significant economic, political, diplomatic, social, environmental, and cultural changes


The Social Gospel was a Protestant movement that was most prominent in the early 20th century United States and Canada. The movement applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as economic inequality, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, unclean environment, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war.



Salvation Army -  Purpose -  the advancement of the Christian religion ...of education, the relief of poverty, and other charitable objects beneficial to society or the community of mankind as a whole



Josiah Strong, Our Country, 1885 Strong argued that Anglo Saxons are a superior race who must "Christianize and civilize" the "savage" races, which he argued would be good for the American economy and the "lesser races



Populist Movement (rural grassroots reform) 




Period #7: 1890-1945 

An increasingly pluralistic United States faced profound domestic and global challenges, debated the proper degree of government activism, and sought to define its international role.


Progressive Movement



Fundamentalism vs Modernism /Scopes trial, 1925



FDR and the New Deal (relief, recovery and reform)


Period #8: 1945-1980 

After World War II, the United States grappled with prosperity and unfamiliar international responsibilities while struggling to live up to its ideals.




The Civil Rights Movement (peaceful protests to increased militancy)




.   http://sclcnational.org/





LBJ and The Great Society



Nation of Islam - Mission:  teach the downtrodden and defenseless black people a thorough knowledge of God and of themselves and to put them on the road to self-independence with a superior culture and higher civilization.  



Malcolm X



The New Right


Right-to-Life Movement - based on the belief that a human being has the right to live and, in particular, should not be killed by another human being. The concept of a right to life arises in debates on issues of capital punishmentwarabortioneuthanasiajustifiable homicide and, by extension, public health care.



Phyllis Schlafly - She called Roe v. Wade "the worst decision in the history of the U.S. Supreme Court" and said that it "is responsible for the killing of millions of unborn babies" 





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